Healthy Decisions for the Love of Health

Correcting Food Allergies and Environmental Sensitivities  Part 1 ( Leaky Gut Syndrome)

What is Leaky Gut

The largest part of the immune system in our body is in the mucosal lining in the gut. The immune system makes sure all those undesirable elements do not get across into the bloodstream to begin with. The intestines are permeable to a certain degree so the proper nutrients get through. Spots in the gut wall open and close selectively to admit the good stuff as the contents of the intestines pass by. Normally, only certain nutrients are absorbed if they are sufficiently broken-down and in the right form. Everything else is selectively blocked out. But when the pores are too big or the screening process breaks down, the intestines become hyperpermeable (overly permeable). Leaky gut syndrome is a term used when the intestines become damaged, more openings develop in the gut wall, and the wall becomes more ‘porous’ to the extent that some of the contents passing through the intestines are allowed to get into the bloodstream when they should be kept out.

Not just food particles slip through. Pathogens, toxins, and other types of ‘waste’ get through that should normally be screened out. Insufficiently broken-down food particles or toxins may cause the liver to work much harder trying to clean everything out. The liver may not be able to keep up with all the detoxification demands sent its way and the toxin load starts building up in the body.

When the gut becomes hyperpermeable, all sorts of gunk can get through and run loose in the body. When this happens, the immune system kicks into gear to stop these invaders. Typically the immune system escorts the invaded out of the body quickly. However, this task often falls to the liver, which may be quite overworked and not able to do this immediately. If not removed right away, the troublesome particles and complexes can migrate through the body and settle in any of the different tissues they pass by. This leads to inflammation in whatever part of the body they settle.

Now we have a new problem: inflammation. This puts even more pressure on the immune system to cover even more ground in defending the body. With the immune system running on ‘high’ on a regular basis, it may be spread thin over a wide array of territory defending the gut, cleaning the blood, fighting inflammation, warding off pathogens, and so on. Many autoimmune conditions start this way. Which type of autoimmune condition a person ends up with may depend on which part of the body the immune complexes settle into.

If you are having food sensitivities to more than a dozen foods, you may very likely have a leaky gut. When the gut is injured in this way, any food eaten may be a candidate to be insufficiently digested and absorbed leading to food intolerances. If you find you are sensitive to a few foods, remove those, then later notice some previously tolerated foods are now causeing problems, consider a leaky gut. The core issue may not be the foods you are eating, but simply that digestion is poor and the gut injured, so anything eaten (and eaten frequently) may become problematic.

What Causes Leaky Gut?

Anyone can develop a leaky gut at any time in their lives. Several factors can lead to leaky gut, either occurring individually or working together. Any chemical or physical activity that stimulates the pores in the intestines and keeps them open for too long can lead to increased permeability. Some common sources follow.

Yeast – This is probably one of the primary causes of leaky gut.Yeasts are single-celled organisms that usually reside in the mucosal lining. Yeast can grow out of the single-cell form and into a fungal form. The fungal form grows root-like tentacles (hyphae) that drill deep into the mucosal lining, poking ‘holes’ in the gut.

Excessive environment toxins –With the detoxification system overloaded or dysfunctional, environment toxins from either inside or outside the body may build up. They can irritate the intestinal lining. The constant inflammation and immune system activity can create a more permeable gut wall.

Chronic stress – Stress suppresses the immune system and can alter intestinal physiological function, increase gut permeability, and cause inflammation. A healthy immune system can easily block out typical pathogens, but a weak one may be overrun. When the immune system is overactive for an extended period of time, leaky gut can develop.

Inflammation – Anything causing inflammation may lead to leaky gut. This can result from insufficiently broken-down food or infections of any kind. Maybe the stomach just does not produce enough hydrochloric acid, resulting in improper digestion. Larger particle sizes from any food can irritate the gut lining. Yeast/bacteria/parasites/viruses can all cause inflammation. Besides the physical damage created by an imbalance of microbes in the gut, bacteria and yeast give off many toxins.

Medications – Medications, prescription and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may also lead to increased permeability. They are considered ‘hard’ on the gastrointestinal lining. Aspirin reduces the thickness of the mucosal lining in the gut, thus making it more susceptible to yeast, inflammation, and irritation by food passing through the gut.

Diet – A diet high in sugar, refined flour and processed foods, complete with their rainbow of artificial food colorings, flavorings, and preservatives places a lot of stress on the immune system as well as the liver. Our bodies see most of the artificial chemicals as pure toxins. The more you consume, the more the body must process out. Most processed foods have less nutrition in them as well. So, you use more energy and nutrients processing these foods from your body and receive less energy from the food. A diet high in refined sugar, flours, and artificial chemicals can actually cost you nutrients and energy rather than supply them.

Zinc deficiency – Zinc is necessary in maintaining intestinal wall integrity. Supplementing with zinc could contribute significantly to healing a leaky gut in about eight weeks (Sturniolo 2001). Zinc is also instrumental in a maintaining a healthy immune system (Prasad 2002). The synthesis of serotonin involves zinc. Since serotonin is also necessary for melatonin synthesis, a zinc deficiency may result in low levels of both of these compounds, causing problems with the sleep cycle, calming, and hyperness.

Problems of Having Leaky Gut

Leaky gut is a condition that can directly lead to many other specific disease states, or indirectly aggravate or worsen other conditions. You may have leaky gut and not be aware of it. Many food intolerances and sensitivities are a consequence of a leaky gut to some degree. You may just feel run down, out of energy, have many food and chemical intolerances, or a multitude of other seemingly unrelated problems. Symptoms of leaky gut syndrome may include:

• aggression • anxiety • asthma • atypical sensory reactions • bed-wetting • bladder infections • bloating or gas • chronic joint, muscle, or abdominal pain • confusion • diarrhea or constipation • fatigue • fevers of unknown origin • fuzzy thinking or ‘brain fog’ • indigestion • memory problems • migraines • mood swings • nervousness • poor exercise tolerance • poor immunity • skin rashes

Besides particles being too large, escaping into the bloodstream, wandering loose in the body, and causing havoc, there is another side to consider. Because the food was not digested and absorbed properly, the person may experience nutrient deficiencies. In one area, the nutrients are bound up in a manner the body does not recognize and hailing in the immune system to remove them. Yet, in another location, the body is starving for those same nutrients. The biological system is overworking unnecessarily in one area while shutting down somewhere else because of insufficient raw materials.

Vitamin therapies may target some of these other systems starving for raw materials. By supplying just the one or two specific raw materials, we may temporarily fix that part, if the vitamin can even reach the intended area of the body, but the system as a whole is still malfunctioning. If the gut is not absorbing food well, then the supplements may not be absorbed well either. A better plan is to fix the hole in the boat (heal the gut).

Fixing the Holes in the Boat

Some of the solutions people pursue just address the superficial symptoms. Often better and quicker results will be seen if healing the leaky gut condition is part of the overall treatment program, rather than just focusing on treating the various diseases or symptoms that result from the injured gut. There are several different paths to healing a leaky gut. Some of the primary ones found by research are:

  • digestive enzymes
  • probiotics
  • zinc
  • oats/oatmeal

There are other supplements such as essential fatty acids or aloe vera which help some people.

Digestive enzymes may be extremely helpful with leaky gut situations because they tackle the problem on several fronts. Enzymes break down the food particles so they do not exist as larger particles that will physically irritate the gut lining or activate the immune system. Plant or microbe (fungal)-based enzymes are especially effective because they do much of this breakdown in the stomach before the food even enters the intestines, a good 60 to 90 minutes before pancreatic enzymes emerge on the scene. Then, by breaking the food down, enzymes are also freeing the individual vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients so the body can use them as the raw materials it needs as well as releasing the energy from your food. Normal biological processes can proceed. Because your nutrition comes from food, you then do not have to supplement extra vitamins, minerals, and whatever else to make up for what you eliminated through diet. Nutrition from whole foods is generally more effective than from many supplements too.

Because enzymes can process the food particles down to their essential forms, anything that does leak through the gut while it is healing is less likely to provoke a negative reaction. Enzymes work on the foods you do suspect as well as those you don’t, or unknown sources. Food intolerances usually drop off dramatically when enzyme use begins. Many people report improvements the very first day of taking enzymes. However, because some food intolerances are processed out of the body a few days later, it is very common to hear of significant improvement by the end of the first week on enzymes.

Next, enzymes proactively support intestinal health. They can act as trash collectors removing dead tissue, debris, chemicals, and toxins from the body. This cleaning out allows the gut to heal faster. Another bonus is that enzymes are effective at clearing out pathogens that may cause and contribute to damaging the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteria and parasites are made of proteins, viruses have protein coatings or ‘films,’ and yeasts have outer shells consisting of cellulose and protein. Proteases and cellulases can help break these intruders down, and then carry off the toxins and dead cells the destroyed pathogens leave behind.

If the digestive enzymes themselves are absorbed into the bloodstream along with the other things, this can be very beneficial. Enzymes, especially the proteases that break down proteins, travel through the bloodstream cleaning out any gunk, toxins, and waste that may be accumulating there. They selectively latch onto toxins and escort them out of the body leaving the good tissue and red blood cells to carry on. This assistance in cleaning the blood helps relieve the burden on the liver and the immune system. Enzymes help clear out the traffic jams so everything can get back on schedule. Proteases are often given in between meals for just this purpose. If you give proteases with food, the enzymes will act on the food first, so giving them between meals sends them directly into the bloodstream to do cleanup. Substantial scientific research has established that the bloodstream takes up enzymes intact where they work in this way (Leibow and Rothman 1975; Rothman, Liebow, and Isenman (2002).

Another benefit of taking proteases between meals is to reduce inflammation. Bromelain and papain (protease enzymes derived from pineapple and papaya) have undergone study in great detail for this purpose and are found to be incredibly effective at reducing inflammation. Proteases can reduce inflammation in the gut directly. Bromelain and papain are well-known agents for assisting in healing gastric ulcers. Material leaking through the intestinal lining can make its way to joints and aggravate them to the point of inflammation, or add to inflammation already started. The proteases in the bloodstream break down these sources of inflammation as they pass by in the bloodstream. Then the debris is transported out of the body, freeing the immune system up to do other things, and allowing you to enjoy your life without so much pain.

The nice thing about enzymes is they address the damaged gut, problematic peptides, food intolerances, and nutrient deficiencies all at the same time. You cover a lot of territory by taking just this one type of supplement.

A good probiotic will help restore the needed balance among the bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. Out with the bad and in with the good. A consistent supply of probiotics is like tending a lawn. You need to kill the weeds, and then keep seeding with the ‘good’ grasses. A healthy lawn will need just a little maintenance. However, doing no maintenance will very soon give you a yard overrun with weeds again.

Is Malabsorption the Same as Leaky Gut?

Although you can have both conditions, and they are related, they are technically different. Leaky gut can be caused by a variety of things and can very often lead to malabsorption. Leaky gut is the state where the protective gut lining looses its integrity. It is less capable of properly selectively screening out those elements that should be screened out, and allowing those elements in that should be let in. So items that should be screened out gain access in.

Malabsorption means 'bad absorption of some type for some reason'. It doesn't indicate the cause though. Nutrients are not being absorbed properly. You might have leaky gut involved, but you can also have malabsorption without leaky gut. If you have a pancreatic problems, poor stomach acid, various diseases, or other causes, you might have an intact gut lining but for some reason, some nutrients are not being absorbed properly. This might be many nutrients or only a few in particular.

What is nice about digestive enzymes is they can help both a leaky gut and malabsorption at the same time.

Leaky Gut Syndrome and Environmental Illnesses

Leaky gut syndrome is likely to play a part in all of the environmental illnesses. All of these illnesses are characterized by a high frequency of allergy, symptoms brought on by chemical exposure, subclinical nutritional deficiencies and gastrointestinal symptoms. The increased toxic load on the body produced by a leaky gut has the general effect of making the nervous and immune systems hyperstimulated. Neuroimmune dysfunction, or more specifically, neuroimmune hyperactivity, is implicated in all the leading theories about the etiology of environmental illnesses like CFS and fibromyalgia.


Glutamine is a common amino acid that is found in many protein containing foods. It is important for a large number of bodily functions, an important example being the detoxification of ammonia. It is one of the most important nutrients for healing leaky gut syndrome because it is the preferred 'fuel' for the cells lining the mucosa of the small intestine (enterocytes). These cells have the ability to take up glutamine directly rather than waiting for it to be supplied through the blood. Glutamine is also required for the production of both intestinal mucus and Secretary Immunoglobulin Type A (SIgA). As a result of these functions, a generous supply of glutamine will help repair and maintain a healthy small intestinal lining. These functions, as well as glutamine's ability to prevent translocation of bacteria from the gut to the bloodstream, have been established in a substantial number of clinical studies both in animals and in human patients with diseases involving impaired intestinal permeability (1, 2, 3, 4).

You can purchase glutamine, in the form of l-glutamine, as capsules or powder and it is widely available in health stores. The powder is arguably a better option as quite large amounts need to be taken and it also ensures the glutamine is readily available when it enters the small intestine. The suggested dosage for moderate-severe leaky gut syndrome is in the range of 5-20g per day.

Vitamin A
An essential nutrient for the production of the GI tracts protective antibodies (SIgA). Vitamin A also helps to maintain a healthy intestinal mucosa and soothes inflammation (5).

Vitamin A can is available in a number of different forms, probably the best of which for this application is an emulsion. Although more expensive, this form is more effective as it effectively coats the intestinal mucosa and gets to where it is needed. Vitamin A can be used safely in doses of up to 20,000-25,000 IU's per day.

In the body zinc is required amongst other things for growth and healing and is more essential to cells with a rapid turnover. The cells of the small intestinal mucosa have an extremely rapid turnover, being replaced about every four days, so zinc is extremely important to the integrity of the intestinal lining. Clinical studies have shown that zinc supplementation can help heal leaky gut in Crohn's disease patients, Crohn's is an illness with a lot of evidence to support the role of leaky gut syndrome (6). To underline it's importance, zinc is easily depleted in the body and Dr. Keith Eaton working for Biolab, London has found zinc to be one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in people with dysbiosis/leaky gut syndrome (7).

Dosages in the range of 50-80mg per day are usually taken to correct deficiencies of zinc. Be careful not to take more than 100mg each day. Up to this level zinc has a positive effect on the immune system but above 100mg per day and it actually inhibits immune function. It is also wise to take 1mg of copper for every 15mg of zinc as they antagonize each other so taking zinc supplements alone will deplete copper in the body.

Insoluble Fibre
There are two distinct types of fibre in our diet, soluble and insoluble. Dr. Leo Galland has found that soluble fibre increases gut permeability (makes leaky gut worse) whereas insoluble fibre decreases gut permeability (heals a leaky gut). The insoluble fibre that Dr. Galland uses with his patients is cellulose and many supplement manufacturers now make cellulose powder and capsules. Cellulose always helps to remove toxins from the intestinal tract before they can be absorbed into the body. Common sources of soluble fibre that should be avoided include psyllium and bran. Ironically these are often suggested by naturopaths and other therapists for people suffering from leaky gut syndrome.

N-Acetyl-Glucosamine (NAG)
This substance is what is known as an 'amino-sugar', a combination of an amino acid and glucose. NAG is essential for the secretion of the mucus that creates a protective lining on top the the cells of the gut.

NAG is widely available and is most commonly sold in capsules.

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)
NAC is a very powerful supplement. It is a form of the amino acid cysteine that is highly bio-available, meaning the body can make use of it much more efficiently than other forms. NAC is a potent antioxidant and detoxifier and provides the body with vital cysteine which is the most essential nutrient for the formation of glutathione, the body's master detoxifying chemical. With regards to leaky gut specifically, NAC helps to detoxify toxins produced by intestinal yeast/bacterial overgrowth and stimulates immune function in the gut lining, increasing white blood cell numbers. This detoxifying action also helps beneficial bacteria to establish themselves in the gut if NAC is taken concurrently with a probiotic supplement. Another benefit is that NAC powerfully enhances liver function through production of glutathione and other conjugation enzymes by supplying vital sulphur molecules. This helps heal a leaky gut as the liver can cope with toxins better and hence spills fewer into the bile therefore irritating the lining of the small intestine to a lesser extent. Research has shown that oxidation may play an impoirtant role in increased intestinal permeability and that treatment with NAC can prevent this damage due to it being a powerful antioxidant (8).

NAC is widely available as capsules. The daily dosage is usually between 500 and 1000mg in divided doses.

Epithelial Growth Factors
These molecules are found in a wide range of sources including peptides deglycerated licorice (DGL), glandular extracts and stevia, which is a natural sweetener and alternative to sugar. Epithelial growth factors have been effectively used in the treatment of various bowel disorders including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. There are likely to be a very useful treatment option for leaky gut syndrome also.


Botanical remedies can be very effective treatments for a wide range of conditions. Below are the most useful herbs for healing a leaky gut and restoring the mucosal barrier. A few of them also powerfully enhance detoxification pathways which is a further benefit for the leaky gut patient.

Deglycyrrhizinated Licorice
DGL has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect and is very soothing to the upper GI tract. It has been comprehensively researched and shown to be an effective treatment for ulcers of the GI tract and also to prevent damage to the intestines by aspirin (9, 10).

Silymarin (Milk Thistle)
This is one of the most powerful healing herbs there is. Most well known for its ability to protect liver cells from potent toxins, it also has a strong anti-inflammatory effect on the gut lining. Silymarin is a very good antioxidant and also increases levels of glutathione in the cells (11).

Slippery Elm
Slippery elm has a soothing, calming effect on inflamed and damaged gut lining. It is used widely for a range of gastrointestinal disorders. This soothing action can be attributed to its antioxidant action in the gut which has been proven in a number of clinical studies, some on inflammatory bowel disease patients where severe inflammation is present (12, 13). In addition, slippery elm provides mucilage which coats and protects the intestinal lining from toxins and pathogenic organisms.

Aloe is a fantastic natural healing agent that has found uses treating a wide range of different conditions due to its multiple beneficial actions. One of aloe's active component are called mucilaginous polysaccharides which give the plant its powerful anti-inflammatory healing action. It has been widely shown to have a beneficial affect on a number of conditions involving inflammation of the gut (14, 15). In addition to its healing effect on the gut lining, aloe is also an immunomodulator and antimicrobial, both of which are beneficial to anyone suffering from leaky gut syndrome and environmental illnesses (16).


Stress Reduction

The digestive tract is the most responsive system in the body to the influences of the brain and the mind-body connection. In fact the digestive system is the only part of the body that contains and uses identical tissues and chemicals to the brain. This has led to the gut being referred to as the 'second brain'. There is a lot of interest in this area at the moment with researchers trying to determine the extent that the brain plays in digestive disorders.

As a result of this strong connection, stress and negative emotional states can have a profound effect on the health of the GI tract. One of the major physiological reactions to stress is the diversion of blood away from the digestive system to the skeletal muscles in readiness to either fight or flee. Effectively, the digestive system is shut down. Without the normal flow of blood, the digestive system is deprived of oxygen, glucose and essential nutrients. Chronic stress therefore leaves the tissues of the digestive system starved of the things it needs to maintain a healthy intestinal wall and produce adequate amounts of protective mucus. It's clear therefore that chronic stress plays an important role in leaky gut syndrome and other digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome.

Dr. Walt Stoll, one of a growing number of doctors turning to an integrative style of medicine, believes that stress is THE most important factor in recovering from leaky gut syndrome. He suggests that everyone suffering from leaky gut syndrome should practice a relaxation technique twice a day that puts the brain into an 'alpha' or 'theta' state. These names relate to the frequency of the brain waves with alpha waves having a frequency of 8-12Hz and theta of 4-8Hz. In these states the brain is able to release the stored stress response 24 times faster than normal sleep which creates 'delta' waves with a frequency of 2-4Hz.

Any technique which is able to produce alpha or theta waves will be very beneficial to the leaky gut sufferer. Some of the techniques that are effective include:

  • Self Hypnosis
  • Biofeedback
  • Breathing Techniques
  • Meditation and other spiritual practices
  • Listening to specially prepared sound frequencies that induce the same frequencies in brain waves. (Audio cassettes/CD's and sound devices are available for this purpose) 


1. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul 1;10(13):1992-4. Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response. Quan ZF, Yang C, Li N, Li JS. Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province, China.

2. Shock. 2004 May;21(5):433-7. Enteral glutamine but not alanine maintains small bowel barrier function after ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Kozar RA, Schultz SG, Bick RJ, Poindexter BJ, DeSoignie R, Moore FA. Department of Surgery, University of Texas--Houston School of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

3. Nutrition. 2001 Sep;17(9):766-8. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients. Yoshida S, Kaibara A, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K.Department of Surgery, Kurume University, School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.

4. J Gastrointest Surg. 1997 Jan;1(1):40-47. Glutamine Stabilizes Intestinal Permeability and Reduces Pancreatic Infection in Acute Experimental Pancreatitis. Foitzik T, Stufler M, Hotz HG, Klinnert J, Wagner J, Warshaw AL, Schulzke JD, Fromm M, Buhr HJ. Departments of Surgery, Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany

5. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):289-93. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity. McCullough FS, Northrop-Clewes CA, Thurnham DI. Northern Ireland Centre for Diet and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK.

6. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001 May;7(2):94-8. Zinc supplementation tightens "leaky gut" in Crohn's disease. Sturniolo GC, Di Leo V, Ferronato A, D'Odorico A, D'Inca R. Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Gastroenterologiche, Universita di Padova, Italy.

7. Abnormal gut fermentation: Laboratory studies reveal deficiency of B vitamins, zinc and magnesium Eaton KK, Mclaren-Howard J, Hunnisett A, Harris M. J.Nutr. Biochem. 1993;4:635-638

8. Dig Liver Dis. 2002 Aug;34(8):560-9. Gut barrier permeability, reticuloendothelial system function and protease inhibitor levels following intestinal ischaemia and reperfusion--effects of pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and indomethacin. Sun Z, Lasson A, Olanders K, Deng X, Andersson R. Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

9. J Assoc Physicians India. 1989 Oct;37(10):647. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, Singh VP.

10. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1979;14(5):605-7. Effect of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin. Rees WD, Rhodes J, Wright JE, Stamford LF, Bennett A.

11. J Pharm Belg. 2003;58(1):28-31. [St. Mary's Thistle: an overview] [Article in French], Laekeman G, De Coster S, De Meyer K.

12. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Feb;16(2):197-205. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS. Academic Department of Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Barts and the London, Queen Mary's, School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

13. Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):364-7. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts. Choi HR, Choi JS, Han YN, Bae SJ, Chung HY.College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Korea.

14. Health News. 2004 Jun;10(6):2. Aloe vera helps ulcerative colitis

15. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul;93(1):33-7. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M. Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

16. Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1423-30. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review. Tan BK, Vanitha J. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 18 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597.


Copyright © 2005 HealthSmart Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Revised: May 18, 2006


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